The Greek Physician Hippocrates (c. 460 – c. 370 BC) incorporated the four temperaments into his medical theories as part of the ancient medical concept of humorism, that four bodily fluids affect human personality traits and behaviors. Every human person on earth is believed to fall under one or more of these personality types and they include the following:
Choleric Personality Type
The Choleric temperament has three combinations: Choleric-Sanguine, Choleric-Phlegmatic, and Choleric-Melancholy
There are at least three levels of intensity of a temperament: classic, moderate, and mild
Cholerics are extroverted, quick thinking, active, practical, strong-willed, and easily annoyed
They are brief, direct, to the point, and firm when communicating with others. They love to be in control. Most people perceive them as controlling and bossy
Cholerics are easily bored when things do not happen fast enough. They are goal-oriented and are bold, as they love to take risks. A Choleric is great at starting up businesses, as their drive would help kick-start any business venture.
Sanguine Personality Type
The Sanguine temperament has three combinations: Sanguine-Choleric, Sanguine-Phlegmatic, and Sanguine-Melancholy.
There are at least three levels of intensity of a temperament: classic, moderate, and mild.
Sanguines are naturally people-oriented. They have an active, positive and cheerful undertone in any environment they find themselves. They are often seen as the light bulb of the organization. They carry positive vibes as well
They influence their environment by encouraging others to work together. They usually function in human resource, as they are people-oriented and seen as motivators
Sanguines have the widest range of behavior due to the fact that they possess the widest range of emotions. This allows them participate (based on their second temperament) in any kind of human activity.
Phlegmatic Personality Type
The Phlegmatic personality type is usually a people person. They seek interpersonal harmony and close relationships. Phlegmatic types are loyal spouses and loving parents
They preserve their relationships with old friends, distant family members, and neighbors because they cherish relationships and are more understanding in their dealings with others
People with phlegmatic temperament tend to avoid conflicts and always try to mediate between others to restore peace and harmony.
Melancholy Personality Type
The Melancholy naturally wants to do things right, and is quality-oriented. They make excellent quality assurance professionals
Melancholies do not intentionally try to be right most times, they are just driven to figure out what is right
They have a cautious, tentative response designed to reduce tension in an unfavorable environment
Melancholies are detailed-oriented, operate through a plan and are very private
Melancholies are introverted, logical, analytical and factual in communication
They need a lot of information, time alone to think and a detailed plan in order to function effectively without anxiety
They influence their environment by adhering to the existing rules, and by doing things right according to predetermined or accepted standards.
a : an attitude, thought, or judgment prompted by feeling : predilection
a : an idea colored by emotion
b : the emotional significance of a passage or expression as distinguished from its verbal context.
Definition of Sensibility:
a : an ability to receive sensations: sensitiveness, tactile sensibility
b : awareness of and responsiveness toward something (such as emotion in another)
c : the kinds of feelings that a certain type of person tends to have
d : the ability to feel and understand emotions
According to Wikipedia
Sentimentalism is the practice of being sentimental, or the tendency to base actions and reactions from emotions and feelings as opposed to reason.
Meaning of Intelligence:
The Oxford English Dictionary provides the following description for the word;
the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge;
the faculty of thought and reason.
According to Mayer and Salovey (1997)
To acquire and apply knowledge is to do with the cognitive part of the brain; it is used to solve problems by taking a rational approach which involves identifying relevant factors, weighing each in turn, and making overall assessments because this cognitive sphere includes such functions as human memory, judgment and abstract thought (Intelligence).
Since the eighteenth-century, psychologists have, in fact, recognized an influential three-part division of the mind: cognition (or thought), affect (emotion) and motivation (or conation). Emotions belong to the second, so-called affective sphere of mental functioning, which includes the emotions themselves, moods, evaluations, and other feelings and states, including feebleness or weariness and vigour.
Therefore, Emotional Intelligence is the capacity to reason about emotions, and of emotions to enhance thinking. It includes the abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer and Salovey 1997, 4).
Man as an Emotional Being;
Studies have emphasized the importance of knowing how to use emotions as the basis for rational thinking, and how equally important it is to rationalize about
Emotional Intelligence refers to skills of interaction and recognizing emotions, which in turn facilitates sophisticated communications and mental well-being.
Relevance of Emotional Intelligence in our Work Environment;
Studies have emphasized the importance of knowing how to use emotions as the basis for rational thinking, and how equally important it is to rationalize about emotions
Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to skills of interaction and recognizing emotions, which in turn facilitates sophisticated communications and mental well-being
It embraces both inter- and intrapersonal intelligence, as proposed by Howard Gardner (Gardner 1983, 2004)
Daniel Goleman (1998) defines emotional intelligence as the capacity to recognize our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in us and in our relationships
Goleman commented that EI is much more important than the levels of IQ or advanced degrees or even technical expertise
EI affects working relationships and the work environment, as it has been recognized by human resources to be a means of improving teamwork and encouraging a healthy feedback culture.
Ways of Utilizing EI in the Workplace:
Self-regulation; handling our emotions so that they facilitate rather than interfere with the task at hand and also recovering well enough from emotional distress
Self-awareness; ability to recognize emotions that guide decision making
Motivation; ability to take initiative and strive to persevere in the face of setbacks and frustrations
Empathy; ability to perceive other people’s emotions, which help cultivate rapport and attunement with a broad diversity of people
Social skills; interacting smoothly, ability to persuade and lead, negotiate and settle disputes, for cooperation and teamwork.
Demerits of Emotional Intelligence
Lack of self-regulation can lead to uncontrollable behaviour that increases a person’s defense mechanism, which then leads to the closing off of information and in turn leads to insensitivity towards others.
Merits of Emotional Intelligence
EI is a vital tool, as it enhances a person’s ability to communicate with someone else in the work environment;
By reading emotions accurately and then applying the knowledge gained to the benefit of all parties involved.
Directing adaptation towards organizational life, where the different skills assist in improving teamwork.
Fostering of personal development through a thorough understanding of others and of self.
Teivaala-Luck, Sanna. 2012. Jane Austen and Emotional Intelligence. Finland: University of Tampere School of Language, Translation and Literary Studies English Philology Pro Gradu Thesis.
Gardner, Howard. 2004. Changing Minds. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Gardner, Howard. 1983. Frames of Mind. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
Goleman, Daniel. 1995. Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Goleman, Daniel. 1998. Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Salovey, Peter., Brackett, Marc. A. and Mayer, John. D. 2004. (eds.) Emotional
Intelligence Key Readings on the Mayer and Salovey Model. New York: Dude Publishing.
Mayer, John, D., Roberts, Richard, D. and Barsade, Sigal, G. 2008. “Human Abilities: Emotional Intelligence”. Annu.Rev.Psychol. 9: 507-536.
Mayer, John, D. and Salovey, Peter. 1995. “Emotional intelligence and the construction and regulation of feelings”. Applied & Preventive Psychology 4:197-208. Cambridge University Press.
The Merriam Webster English Dictionary. 2018
The Oxford English Dictionary Online. 2010 [Internet] Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available from http:/www.oed.com/ [Accessed June 2011]